Thursday, March 12, 2020
Bio Lab essays Every minute there are thousands of chemical reactions occurring in cells that are controlled by enzymes. (Vodopich) Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions. As catalysts, enzymes lower the amount of energy needed to trigger a reaction. Enzymes are proteins with their own shapes determined by amino acid structures. The active site complexes on these structures determine what specific changes a substrate (reactant molecule in a catalyzed enzyme) will go through becoming a different substance with a different shape. (Weiss 2001) During this experiment the enzyme catalase was used to reduce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen. After adding aliqouts of reaction mixture we removed small amounts of sample at different time intervals we analyzed the molar concentration of H2O2 and the velocity of molar change per minute. Assaying denatured enzyme samples at different time intervals of 0, 0.5,1,1.5,and 2 minutes to review spectrophotometer readings of the c orresponding samples of H2O2. Our absorbency readings at 500 decreased from .921 at 0 minutes to 0.086 at 2.0 minutes. The concentration of H2O2 also decreased according to time, from .28 moles at 0 minutes to 0.026 moles at 2 minutes. Between 1 and 1.5 minutes the velocity of molarity change per minute peaked at a velocity of .16 and decreased to be .108 at 2 minutes. Confirming that with an adequate amount of subsrates, enzyme reactions increase. Accordingly depleted substrate reactions decrease with time. Graphically enzymes with an abundant substrate concentration rate appear linear with time. (Weiss 2001) Enzymes are catalysts, accelerate reaction rates, in Biological sequencesthat when left alone can speed up reactions 14-20 times while in ideal conditions such as 37 degrees celsius and neutral pH. Also enzymes are protiens which are made of specific amino acid sequences. The shape of an enzyme is determined by its amino acid sequence which controlt...
Monday, February 24, 2020
Child psychology - Essay Example During the childhood of Jennie Hawthorne, there were no any takeaway meals or frozen meals, and there are still no computers and no refrigerators and this is far different from the common environment of children. The life of Jennie Hawthorne in Bethnal Green is full of struggles, from her own family, environment, and herself; however, these factors influenced and transforms her life. Hundred of studies already documented the association between poverty and children's health, achievement, and behavior. There is an observed correlation between poverty and child outcomes, and it has an effect on child and adolescent well being. The income of a family appears to be strongly related to the children's ability and achievement than to their emotional outcomes. In the life of Jennie Hawthorne, she grew up in a family that full of struggles in life and poverty, she even needs to quit from school and go working. Most of her life, she had illnesses and it affects her childhood life. Their community is full of crimes, and she still recalls everything that she witnessed. Children who lived and experienced poverty have lower rates of school completion. Jennie Hawthorne encountered inadequate nutrition and fewer learning experiences, instability of residence, exposed to environmental toxins, family violence, and dangerous streets. The East end always signifies diversity in culture, there are always new immigrants arriving and there is ethnic mix of the twenties. These diversities can be observed through the names and faces of the people, some of them are from Lithuania, Russia, Poland, and Italy and they joined the Irish who arrived in the place during the middle of the 19th century. The Irish who tried to escape from the famine in Ireland and people never had an English name. Everything about the place was still in the mind of Jennie, she still remembers during the time when there were still no any buses or trains and it seems that the whole street was their playground. Jennie still remembers the ships that were packed at London's great river and for the people they considered France as a dream. Jennie still remembers all her memories in Bethnal Green, as her parents are fighting, and she remembers who she dreamed to go beyond the East End of her childhood that her study and work take her to strange places. The recall about the place, demonstrates how the young Jennie Crawley inhabited a small and very happy world in the East End. There is greenery in Victoria Park and it seems that everything was already there in the place. Poverty significantly affect the child development. The socioeconomic status has relationship with the child health and it is observed in most industrialized countries. This is observed in the occurrence of poverty especially by lack of material resources. Poverty is not a static condition, and there can be many entries and exits for this situation. Jennie Hawthorne P 3 mortality and morbidity, and poverty also affects the child health as it jeopardizes their future adult health. Most of the adult chronic health problems like cardiovascular diseases are originated from the pregnancy and during the first years of their life. The status of poverty is linked to poor child development and they are likely to have problems in completing school and they have low scores in
Saturday, February 8, 2020
434Mod1Case - Essay Example Often cyber ethics education is based on one significant theory or combination of two theories. The two major theoretical approaches are teleological and deontological theories. Teleological theories states actionÃ¢â¬â¢s consequences to be a measure of actionÃ¢â¬â¢s good. On the other hand deontological theories consider actionÃ¢â¬â¢s righteousness to be above goodness. Utilitarian foundation is a part of teleological theories. This foundation states that action of an individual should be able to maximize happiness and good for all who are affected by such actions. It highlights the factor that actions of a person should be based on probable consequences that may be resulted by the action before it is been executed. This theory claims that a person should think about each and every individual and not just person taking a decision. Deontological theory is an ethical study based on duties. It considers duty and fidelity toward principle to be most essential factors (Gold, 2010). This theory states that an actionÃ¢â¬â¢s consequences are not that important in comparison to rightness of the action. As per this theory an action is said to be valid if actions that are taken by individuals do not lead to any form of contradiction. The basic concept of this theory is that individuals should work according to their intelligence and virtue; act justly, should tell truth and avoid any form of injury towards others. Both the theories have different elements which state the importance of cyber ethics. This form of education has gained its importance in the recent years where stealing music or video is considered to be equivalent to actual theft. Students are made aware about the different cyber crimes and its impact on others (Starr, 2011). Information technology in the present scenario has given liberty to individuals to access various data but also it has posed a threat to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy. In American schools
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Multicultural Education by Keith Wilson Essay Multicultural education relates to education and instruction designed for the cultures of several different races in an educational system. This approach to teaching and learning is based upon consensus building, respect, and fostering cultural pluralism within racial societies. Multicultural education acknowledges and incorporates positive racial idiosyncrasies into classroom atmospheres. Pros of Multicultural Education A significant demographic transformation is on the horizon for the United States of America. Bennett (1995) estimates that by the year 2000, over 30 percent of our school age population will be children of color (p. 18). Additionally, research has indicated that ethnic minority students are disproportionately poor, dropping out of school, being suspended or expelled, and achieving far below their potential relative to the ethnic majority (Bennett, 1995). Consequently, teachers must prepare themselves and their children for the ever changing challenge of interacting and communicating with diverse races. Reduction of fear, ignorance, and personal detachment are possible benefits to a Multicultural education. The following excerpts are taken from Paul Gorski (1995), a University of Virginia Doctoral student during a case study interview: The idea of political correctness with the black race astounds me. I found it extremely interesting that some blacks in our class prefer to be called African American. In all of my classes I have felt like I was stepping on egg shells as to not offend the blacks in my class. I am honestly glad it is not that big of an issue to my fellow classmatesit promotes a more comfortable, genuine environment for me to be totally honest and carefree. Initially, the student interviewed in the case study reflected an attitude that would probably not facilitate consensus building, respect for other cultures, or fostering of cultural pluralism within different racial communities and in the classroom. However, with integrated curriculum, social activities, administrative support, and staff training, fear, ignorance, and personal detachment may be notably reduced in both students and teachers. Benefits to multicultural education can help to eliminate the crux of stereotyping, prejudice, racism, and bigotry (Fear, Ignorance, dis-ownership). Case study analyzed: 1. fear: I have felt like I was stepping on egg shells as to not offend blacks in my classes 2. ignorance: I found it extremely interesting that some blacks in our class prefer to be called African American. 3. dis-ownership: I am honestly glad it is not that big of an issue to my fellow classmates. The writer agrees with Hilliard and Pine (1990), if Americans are to embrace diversity, the conscious and unconscious expressions of racism (sexism) within our society must be identified and done away with (p. ). Multicultural education is the potential catalyst to bring all races together in harmony. Cons of Multicultural Education According to some views, if one wants to alienate and further fragment the communication and rapport between ethnic groups, implement multicultural education. As stated by Bennett (1995), to dwell on cultural differences is to foster negative prejudices and stereotypes, and that is human nature to view those who are different as inferior (p. 29). Thus, multicultural education will enhance feelings of being atypical. Schools in America may see multicultural education as a way to color blind their students to differences. Administrators may view the color blind approach as a gate keeper that assures equal treatment and justice for all students and as a way to facilitate compatibility and sameness of all cultures. A common statement from this line of thinking is, we are more alike than different. We should focus on the similarities and not the differences to achieve greater equanimity among the races. Ethnicity is breaking up many nations. If one looks at the former Soviet Union, India, Yugoslavia, and Ethiopia, all countries are in some type of crisis. Closer to home, one observes the divisiveness of the Rodney King and O. J. Simpson trials in our country, we can see how focusing on race and multiculturalism may lead to a further divisiveness between the races in America. Over time, multicultural education may have unplanned for and undesired consequences. For example, multicultural education rejects the historic American goals of assimilation and integration of ethnic cultures into the majority culture. Hence, the perception may result that America is a country of distinct ethnic groups, as opposed to a more traditional view of the country that involves individuals making decisions for the good of the order (Schlesinger, 1991). Multicultural education may increase the resentment encountered by students who feel that changes in school traditions, curriculum, and academic standards are not necessary to get along and respect students from ethnic minorities. Since many institutions resist change of any kind, passive resistance on the part of the administration may simulate acceptance of the tenants of Multicultural education. Of course, excepting the tenants of multicultural education should be avoided with enthusiasm and optimism. What would real Multicultural Education look like? The writer submits that multicultural education must have, as its crux, the below defining characteristics to achieve its purposes for students, teachers, parents, and administrators of the school system: a) a learning environment that supports positive interracial contact; b) a multicultural curriculum; c) positive teacher expectations; d) administrative support; and, e) teacher training workshops (Bennett, 1995). If one of the features is absent, frustration and heightened resentment may occur as backlash behaviors multiply. The effects of a positive multicultural climate may manifest in a number of ways, such as: a) diminished pockets of segregation among student body; b) less racial tension in the schools; c) increased ethnic minority retention and classroom performance; and, d) inclusion of a multicultural curriculum. In short, the multicultural educational environment should not be a microcosm of our present American society, with regard to issues of diversity and tolerance. Many factors determine a successful multicultural atmosphere, but the features as outlined above may be important indications of success. Administrative support for multicultural education is critical. How can a house stand if the foundation is fragile. Multicultural education will be as successful as commitment to it by school administrators. Regardless of the level of commitment (local, state, and/or national), programs initiated under the guise of multiculturalism must receive reinforcement from administrators who are accountable for the success of established multicultural initiatives. A key factor in any proposed multicultural initiative is curriculum development. A multicultural curriculum should be considered for several reasons: a) provides alternative points of view relative to information already taught in most educational systems; b) provides ethnic minorities with a sense of being inclusive in history, science etc. and, c) decreases stereotypes, prejudice, bigotry, and racism in America and the world. A significant demographic transformation is on the horizon for American schools. Educational institutions have been dictated too long by attitudes, values, beliefs, and value systems of one race and class of people. The future of our universe is demanding a positive change for all (Hilliard Pine, 1990).
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Seamus Heaney Seamus Heaney was born in April 1939 in Northern Ireland. His father owned and worked fifty acres of farmland in County Derry in N.I. Patrick Heaney had always been committed to cattle-dealing. SeamusÃ¢â¬â¢ parents died quite early in his life and so his uncle had to take care of him from then on. Heaney grew up as a country boy and attended the local primary school. When he was twelve he won a scholarship to St. ColumbÃ¢â¬â¢s College, a catholic boarding school situated in the city of Derry. Heaney moved to Belfast later in his life where he lived for fifteen years and then moved to the republic. Since 1982 he made annual visits to America to teach and since then he started writing his poems. HeaneyÃ¢â¬â¢s first poem was called Ã¢â¬ËDiggingÃ¢â¬â¢. The aims of this essay are to compare two of Seamus HeaneysÃ¢â¬â¢s poems which deal with the theme of childhood. The two poems are called Ã¢â¬ËThe Early PurgesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËMid-Term BreakÃ¢â¬â¢. The relevance of the title Ã¢â¬ËThe Early PurgesÃ¢â¬â¢ is that it informs us about what happens during the poem and it tells us what the subject of the poem is. The poem goes straight into what it is about and it is based the death of animals on a farm and is subjected to two peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions over the killing of the animals. The poem is very ambiguous and ironic with a gory tone to it because of its in depth description of the death. The poem has seven three line stanzas called tercets, and each line holds five to ten words keeping the poem easy to read throughout. Heaney has chosen to use this stanza structure and line length because it builds up tension and keeps you in suspense. It is also easier to digest in small stanzas and I think he has done this for us to get the full effect of the poem. There is a rhyme scheme in the poem but is split into para-rhymes because it gives a flow to the poem and grasps the readers attention all the way through. Seamus Heaney uses lots of imagery in this poem to get the reader to really imagine how the animals were treated on the farm. Heaney mentions a line that Dan Taggart had said on the farm. Ã¢â¬Å"Like wet GlovesÃ¢â¬ Dan had thought they looked like wet gloves when they were being drowned. Also while Heaney had watched the kittens drown, he said that he had watched them Ã¢â¬Å"Turn mealy and crisp as old summer dungÃ¢â¬ . As you can see, again how Heaney exaggerates on the killing of
Monday, January 13, 2020
1. Do you agree with the Mondavi familyÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to publicly list the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s shares? What are your major concerns with how this could impact the business? What are the major benefits? 2. How would you recommend Robert Mondavi respond to the marketÃ¢â¬â¢s current assessment of the company? What types of investors are most likely to be interested in the company? How would you best target those investors? 3. What do you think could have led to the rapid fall in the share price? 1.Ã Clearly for Mondavi, going public is the only way to secure large financing for his business. However, the decision that Mondavi made to increase the scale of business is debatable. While Mondavi can be conservative to stay on the same scale and try to grow organically, Mondavi can also be risk taking and gather money from the public. With regard to the wine market prospects, there are two sides of the argument which favour and unfavor the wine market. It is thus difficult to judge from the wine market aspects. Ultimately it is the MondaviÃ¢â¬â¢s personal preference to take the riskier and higher reward decision. 2.Ã The market assessment of the company seems to value MOND to have a pessimistic future and worth a lot less than when it is first public offering. Reputable business magazine, Forbes, look down on the prospects of MOND, which provide strong a strong reason for financial reward seeking investors not to invest in MOND. It is likely that investor who ultimately purchases MONDÃ¢â¬â¢s shares and hold, as noted from the low free share turnover after week 7, are people who believes in the MONDÃ¢â¬â¢s business vision. MOND could release press in respond to convince the public the futureÃ prospects of MOND. For investors who are still believer of the company should be informed that the company will continue to grow as what it was promised and will not go through major restructuring to produce a better financial report. 3.Ã MondaviÃ¢â¬â¢s IPO day is on June 10 1993. There are two articles released by The Wall Street Journal and Forbes, on April 26 and June 7 respectively, both lookdown on the prospects of MOND and the entire wine industry. They played an important role to discourage financial reward seeking investors to buy MONDÃ¢â¬â¢s shares and makes them feel sceptical about the value of MOND. High share turnover on the first day and respectable closing price indicates a successful IPO. However, the market thinks the value of MOND is overpriced and no later investors are willing to pay a price greater than its current market price. This trends continues till week nine despite the free share turnover is low. It is still unclear when the share price will stop falling. One other major reason for the continuing falling share price is that the Mondavi management team did not response to their stock price. This result in investors losing their confidence with the company.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2841 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Education Essay Type Analytical essay Level High school Did you like this example? What are the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating technology into the classroom with a specific focus on non-ICT lessons? The use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education has been described as engaging, enabling and transformative (Clark et al. 2009; Prensky, 2010). ICT can improve both personalisation and collaboration, providing tools and experiences that can aid social and independent learning (OHara, 2008; Selwyn et al. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Technology into the Classroom Essay Online For Free" essay for you Create order 2010). Throughout non-ICT subjects, technology can help to create an enabling environment, founded on communication and interaction (OHara, 2008, p.29). ICT can also structure childrens understanding of curriculum content in non-ICT lessons, while helping them to develop knowledge of processes that will be of significant use in their future lives (DfES, 2006). However, only one in four schools are succeeding in employing ICT to enhance learning across the curriculum, which suggests that there are barriers to the effective use of ICT in non-ICT lessons (BECTA, 2009). While developing practical skills with technology is essential, children will also need to cultivate a reflective, metacognitive awareness (Flavell, 1979, p.908) of their own creative and safe engagement with ICT in order to use it effectively in non-ICT lessons (Sharples et al. 2009). This concept has been defined as e-confidence and is a key concern for teachers when planning learning experiences involving ICT (QCA/N AACE, 2007). A framework of possibilities for using ICT throughout the curriculum has been developed by the National College of School Leadership (Blows, 2009). This matrix involves a progressive scale of e-words, which describe the increasing effectiveness of ICT as a tool to transform learning and develop childrens higher-order thinking skills (Blows, 2009; Bloom, 1956). The ICT and Learning matrix can be seen in Fig.1: Fig.1 ICT and Learning: e-words matrix (Blows, 2009) By referencing this matrix against other educational theories, it will be argued that embedding technology into non-ICT has the potential to extend and empower learners (Blows, 2009). However, the key point is that ICT needs to be used to support, challenge andÃâÃ empower learners, rather than simply being exchanged for traditional teaching methods in order to meet national agendas (Blows, 2009). Blows (2009, no page numbers) emphasises the importance of using ICT to enhance learning, rather th an simply exchange it with traditional resources. Furthermore, Prensky (2010) recognises the limitations of using technology just for the sake of it. For example, using an iPAD or SMARTboard as a dynamic, problem-solving device for group work in mathematics or geography would be beneficial to supporting cognitive development (Adey, 1992). However using these technologies as basic presentation tools, or only to display multimedia content would be a less effective use of the resources. Tondeur et al. (2006, p.963) assert that schools concentrate too much on teaching the practical use of ICT programs, rather than using technology to improve learning, collaboration and cognition. ICT is still seen as separate from other subjects and needs to be embedded into non-ICT subjects more organically (Tondeur et al., 2006). However, this should not be at the detriment of traditional skills, for example map reading and measuring in geography. Conole (2007, p.82) recognises three fundamental sh ifts in education since the beginning of the twenty-first century: from a focus on information to communication, [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦] from a passive to more interactive engagement, and [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.] from a focus on individual learners to more socially situative learning. The implication is that technology must be harnessed to extend learners, rather than passively replacing previous resources (Blows, 2009). By successfully integrating technology into non-ICT subjects, ICT can create collaborative experiences that are both engaging and more effective than was previously possible (OHara, 2008). For example, students can use the internet to research and share knowledge, and use creative computer programs in collaboration with other social groups. However, a disadvantage of using ICT is that it can hinder students cognitive and problem-solving by providing too much support (OHara, 2008). An interactive database in science is beneficial to learning, but should not over-simplify l earning as this would be to the detriment of student progression and understanding. In contrast, the new Computing Programmes of Study (DfE, 2013) suggest that students need practical skills in computing before ICT can be used to enhance non-ICT subjects. ICT can be advantageous in non-ICT subjects as long as it balances practical application with collaborative and creative learning. Technology can be employed in non-ICT lessons to support children in creating material for specific purposes and audiences, using various modes of communication (Bearne, 2003). An example of this could be setting up a class blog in Literacy or Art lessons with which pupils could display and discuss their work and learning, using photos and sound files to create their own multimodal blog-site. Richardson (2009, p.27) argues that blogs are a truly constructivist tool for learning and can therefore be employed by teachers to engage and structure learning. It has been suggested that while formal writing can be described as independent monologue, blogging should be regarded as a conversation (Selwyn et al. 2010, p.30). ICT allows childrens work to be dynamically shared with parents and family on a regular basis, resulting in the continuation of learning outside of school and improved links to the community. However, while ICT can provide a supportive learning framework or resource, this relies on the teacher to guide children through progressive stages of learning (Wood et al. 1976). The use of ICT in non-ICT lessons relies on the presence and planning of a skilled teacher who recognises how to harness technology to improve learning, rather than just replace, for example, existing literacy practices. When embedding ICT into non-ICT lessons, the teacher should act as a facilitator and enabler, using technology as a tool to increase learning possibilities for a group of children working at different attainment levels (Prensky, 2010). Technology can enhance learning by connecting th e elements of exploration, contribution and completion (Richardson, 2009). An example is the proposal that video games can engage reluctant learners (DfES, 2005). Young pupils may have become disengaged by a digital divide between their home use of ICT, and the ICT that they have access to in school. Therefore, using games as a learning resource in Mathematics or Geography could create links between home interests and school classroom cultures (Sutherland-Smith et al. 2003, p.31). Using ICT to connect curriculum areas has the potential to increase social participation in schools and reengage disenfranchised learners (Clark et al. 2009). An example of this concept is the video game Wild Earth: African Safari on Nintendo Wii; in which the player is a photojournalist touring the Serengeti National Park, taking photos of indigenous animals. This game could be used to actively demonstrate a different part of the world to young learners, which would be impossible without ICT. Children could subsequently create paintings, drama or simply discuss what they have seen to improve collaboration and cognition (Hong et al. 2009). ICT can therefore enhance cultural understanding and critical thinking in non-ICT subjects (Hague and Payton, 2010). However, the teachers selection of game, or other ICT resource, must be relevant to the learning experience and support the achievement of learning objectives, so that technology is not simply replacing traditional resources (Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2010). Structured by their interactions with ICT, children can develop communication skills that will prepare them for the future. However, it could be argued that ICT is never a substitute for real experiences. It should instead be viewed as a tool for improving non ICT-lessons. This example demonstrates that ICT offers teachers a set of virtual tools that can enhance learning in non-ICT lessons (Simpson and Toyn, 2012, p.1). However, students will need to be taught how to use these tools effectively so that they can employ them in non-ICT subjects. ICT in other subjects requires additional training and instruction, which may detract from general teaching and learning time (Simpson and Toyn, 2012). Using technology in non-ICT lessons is all about balance, with the teacher needing to balance ICT with traditional and transitional learning skills in order to support progression. ICT can enhance (Blows, 2009) learning experiences in non-ICT lessons by structuring the development of skills and understanding. However, Prensky (2010, p.72) proposes that there is a difference between a learning experience being relevant to children and being real. Rather than providing passing allusions to childrens interests, teachers must use ICT to find ways to help children connect with real issues. ICT must be employed in authentic and purposeful contexts (Loveless, 2003, p.102) to empower learners (Blows, 2009) so that they can achieve a greater understanding of a to pic in non-ICT lessons. An example is using video-conferencing technology to create links between the classroom and other areas, and broaden the landscape for learning. A teacher could set up a conversation with a school in a different location, with a contrasting community but similar issues. Classes could ask each other questions and describe their school and community environments. This would support the development of speaking and listening skills, alongside personal [and] social development (DfCSF, 2008, p.13). By linking learning to other places and communities, ICT can create a wider community of practice in non-ICT lessons, where young children recognise that education and learning are not isolated to their school location (Wenger, 1999, p.4). Technology can therefore have a positive and transformative effect (Wheeler and Winter, 2005) by allowing children to develop personal reflection during purposeful social participation (Richardson, 2009). However, young people ne ed to recognise how to utilise technology to support their ongoing learning. Hague and Payton (2010, p.8) argue that education systems need to help young people to understand and benefit from their engagement with digital technology and digital cultures.ÃâÃ ICT supports and extends (Blows, 2009) both independent and social progression, but young people need to recognise how to use technology as a tool to expand their learning in non-ICT lessons. An appraisal of advantages and disadvantages of using ICT in non-ICT lessons needs to investigate potential problems and highlight areas of concern. Critics argue that early computer use can affect young childrens vision and physical development, leading to a possible deficit in the advancement of their motor skills (AfC, 2000). Furthermore, technology can often fail to work, which could disrupt lessons and demotivate learners in non-ICT lessons (OHara, 2008). Practitioners also need to be knowledgeable enough to successfully integr ate ICTs into teaching and learning, and this is reliant on available budgets for high quality training (OHara, 2008). A lack of expertise can be a limiting factor that can negate the potential of ICT to improve learning across the curriculum (Beetham, 2007, p.32). Similarly, students may have different skill-levels with ICT, so the teacher needs to incorporate this into lesson planning in the same way that they would differentiate by ability in core subjects (Hague and Payton, 2010). Perhaps the most debated area of concern of using ICT across the curriculum is that of e-safety (Sharples et al. 2009). The integration of ICT into non-ICT lessons must be supported by a comprehensive school e-safety policy (Byron, 2008). The supposed moral panic (Bennett et al. 2008, p.775) associated with childrens use of ICT, particularly the internet, can create pedagogical difficulties for teachers. A balance must be achieved between encouraging pupils to participate in creative, collaborative activities in non-ICT subjects, while also protecting them from risk (Sharples et al. 2009). Prensky (2009) asserts that adults should not simply instruct young learners about the risks associated with using ICT. Children must also develop digital wisdom in order to understand safe practice and an awareness of their identity as users of technology (Prensky, 2009, p.11). The topic of e-safety shows that incorporating technology into non-ICT lessons has simultaneous advantages and disadvantages that need to be diligently managed by the school, the teachers, and by the students themselves. The use of technology in non-ICT lessons can engage learners and enhance learning experiences (Wheeler and Winter, 2005). However, the integration of ICT into classroom practice requires balance so that it does not detract from physical and social development (AfC, 2000). ICT can be embedded into learning activities to improve collaborative learning (DfES, 2006), yet it also supports the personali sation of activity and assessment. Activities involving ICT should negotiate a balance between creativity and safety, in order to adhere to the schools e-safety policy (Sharples et al. 2009). Children need to develop practical skills in ICT, alongside a social and cognitive awareness that will help them to succeed in a technology-driven society. An essential part of using ICT in non-ICT lessons is that young children are gradually encouraged to recognise the difference between information and knowledge (Nutt, 2010). ICT provides new means to investigate and retrieve information (BECTA, 2009) and empowers learners (Blows, 2009) with new modes of communication (Bearne, 2003). However, these benefits would prove irrelevant without the transformation of information and digital discourse into knowledge and understanding. Technology can have huge advantages for learning in non-ICT lessons, while the disadvantages and barriers can be managed by educators. However, ultimately, it is not what ICTs children are using across the curriculum, but what they are using them for that really matters for the future. References Adey, P. (1992) The CASE results: implications for science teaching. International Journal of Science Education. 14 (2) pp.137-146. AfC (2000) Fools Gold: a critical look at computers in childhood. [Online]. Available at: https://www.allianceforchildhood.org/fools_gold (Accessed: 6th Oct 2015). Bearne, E. (2003) Rethinking literacy: communication, representation and text. Reading, Literacy and Language. 37 (3) pp.98-103. BECTA (2009) Bectas Contribution to the Rose Review. [Online]. Available at: https://clc2.uniservity.com/GroupDownloadFile.asp?GroupId=20115174ResourceId=2892751 (Accessed: 7th Oct 2015). Beetham, H. 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